Saturday, May 7, 2011

Thank You David Reinhardt!

I received the best gifts today.  David sent me a bound version of the Brueggemann Family Information.  It is a great resource with more information than I can imagine.  Also, he sent me a book made for the 1998 reunion, full of details, pictures, family recipes, and MEMORIES.  It will be something I will share often in this blog.  I am currently at our lake cabin in Salem, South Carolina and my dear husband knew I would want these right away and drove them up from Atlanta so I wouldn't have to wait until I get home in a week or two.


I want to share this article that was found in Emma Long Brueggeman's book of recipes.  Apparently, Lydia ended up with this book.  I wonder which one of her children may have the book now?


"There arrived today from Norris, Michigan, a little town north of Detroit in the county of Wayne, four deaf mute children aged probably from 10 to 13 years.  They were all German children and bound for their homes in Milwaukee.  At the depot the little party of silent people were met by Rev. Brueggemann of St. John's Lutheran Church who is caring for them until the steamer Wisconsin leaves tonight.  In the party are two boys and two little girls.  The boys have their names and address pinned on their coats.  When seen this afternoon they were eating dinner at the Hotel Kirby.  There is one thing peculiar about them which is not found in other deaf mutes.  They are all students at an institution in Norris, where they are taught to emit sounds resembling words, quite plainly.  When one talks the other children watch and then by the position of the mouth they can tell what the other is saying.  The sound which they emit when talking is a sort of pathetic cry; but even one who is not familiar with the children can understand some of the words they speak.  The children are all well appearing and seem happy.  One of the boys, who was especially bright, when asked his name answered "Wilhelm Harter" in that peculiar sound, which when once heard, will always be remembered.  A person by tieing (sic) his tongue to the bottom of his mouth could imitate it fairly well, but not in the way these children have.  The institution where they are studying is on the plan of the German Deaf Mute schools.  Finger language is taught only to the very young, after which they are allowed to converse only with their mouths.


"This clipping from the Grand Haven, Michigan newspaper
published in the summer of 1891.  It had been saved by Mother
(Mrs. Emma Louise Brueggeman) for 42 years"
Signed by EAB
"I (EAB) was urged to care for them during the day
and in the evening bring them on the boat
for Milwaukee"
I love this!  Must have been a big deal in Grand Haven to have four "deaf mute" children in town for the day to have such an article written for the paper.

I googled and found the name of the school:  German Evangelical Lutheran Institute.  I cannot share a photo without permission from Gallaudet University Archives but I give you the link to see a picture from 1890.  I bet the children watched over by EAB were in this picture. This info below was from a book published in 1893.  It is kind of long so don't feel like you have to read it if not interested.  The article was written by the school's director:

THE GERMAN: EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN DEAF-MUTE INSTITUTION. 

^iN'the year 1873 there was organized within the membership of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Detroit, Michigan, a society whose object was to erect an orphanage for orphans of the Lutheran Church within the State of Michigan. For 
this purpose ten acres of land were purchased some twelve miles west of Detroitwithin the confines of Royal Oak, Oakland county, Michigan, on which was erected a building of adequate dimensions for the time. The Eev. G. Speckhard, then 
pastor of a society in Sebewaing, Huron county, Michigan, was called to take 
charge of the orphanage. Pastor Speckhard acceppted the call and assumed chargeof the orphanage, and also of the Lutheran congregation at Royal Oak. He was 
accompanied by two deaf-mute children, natives of Saginaw county, Michigan, 
whom he had already for several years successfully instructed by the German 
oral method, and whose parents desired that he should continue to so instruct them in order to enable them to be confirmed in the Lutheran faith. This system of orally instructing the deaf was well known to Pastor Speckhard, as he had twenty years previously taught the same in the German Deaf-Mute Institution at Priedberg, in the Grand Duchy of Hesse- Darmstadt — a system of instruction then unknown not only in the State of Michigan, but also in other States of the 
Union. Nevertheless, this system met with speedy approval, and consequently, within ten months, no fewer than fifteen deaf-mute pupils had presented 
themselves to the Rev. Mr. Speckhard for German oral instruction. This 
unexpectedly compelled the society in question either to decide on 
carrying out their original design of establishing an orphan asylum or to foundan institution for deaf-mutes, because to conduct and sustain two benevolent institutions having entirely different ends in view was out of the question. 
After mature deliberation, it was decided to found a deaf-mute institution, 
more especially because, meanwhile, other provisions had been made for orphans by the establishment of an orphanage at Addison, Du Page county, in the 
adjoining State of Illinois, where also the orphans of Michigan could be 
accommodated, and more especially because an institution under the auspices 
of the Lutheran Church where deaf-mutes of the Lutheran faith could be 
instructed had been seriously desired for some time past. The orphans, therefore, were transferred to the Home at Addison, and the Michigan Institute was thenincorporated, and devoted exclusively to the instruction of deaf-mutes 
according to the German oral method. 

The existing structure, which soon proved inadequate, necessitated plans for 
enlargement. As, however, for diverse reasons, it became desirable to have the Institution in the vicinity of the city of Detroit, a suitable location was 
looked for, whereupon a noble-minded American, Mr. Philetus William Norris, of Norris, Wayne county, Michigan, tendered to the association the generous gift 
of twenty acres of land, improved with sundry farm buildings, provided the 
Institution should be removed to Norris. This praiseworthy offer was gratefullyaccepted. At once arrangements were made to erect there a suitable building to accommodate some fifty pupils. The structure was commenced, proceeded 
satisfactorily, and was happily completed early during the year 1875. It is 
true this encumbered the society with an indebtedness of $15,000, which, owing to the stringency of the times, entailed innumerable cares and responsibilitiesupon the Institution, to overcome and satisfy which demanded no small amount ofthought and labor. But the work has been accomplished with God's assistance, 
the undertaking not only holding its own, but meanwhile actually advancing in 
prosperity; so that to-day it has paid off nearly all of its debt, besides 
adding numerous conveniences and improvements to the Institute building and 
erecting three teachers' residences. The total expenses of erection, 
improvement, maintenance of pupils, salaries of teachers, matrons, and other 
employees have been and are defrayed from voluntary contributions and gifts 
bestowed by members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in this country; 
in particular by those of the aforesaid Evangelical Lutheran Synodal ConferenceThus far no State support has been received and none is asked for. 

The transfer of the Institution from Royal Oak to Norris, as stated, occurred 
in February, 1875, the Institution then comprising 23 pupils, together with the director, G. Speckhard, and family, and Mr. H. Uhlig, who, in January, 1875, 
had been called into service as an assistant instructor from the Theological 
Seminary at St. Louis, Missouri. The ceremony of dedication took place on the 
following 17th day of May, and was attended by a large concourse of friends andpatrons from Detroit and vicinity, the deaf pupils on that occasion giving evidence of the results of their instruction by speaking orally in public. Their efforts met with general approbation. At the same time those present inspected 
the interior arrangements of the Institution building. The latter is, exclusiveof basement, a three-story brick structure, 46 x 74 feet, ornamented with a 
belfry. The basement comprises a cellar, store-rooms, a bake oven, laundry and bath rooms. On the first floor are two spacious school-rooms, a dining hall, 
which serves at the same time as the boys' study, a kitchen, and on either sidewash-rooms for the children — the one for the boys being on the east, and that for the girls on the west side of the building. On the second floor are the 
living-rooms of the matron and husband, or "Hauseltern " (the so-called 
'' Institution father and mother "), dormitories for the girls, their rooms for study and industrial classes, and an apartment for the sick. On the third 
floor are an additional school-room, dormitories for the boys, and a guest chamber. Fire-escapes are provided from each story. All of the apartments have highceilings and are bright and cheerful, while the stairways and halls are wide 
and convenient. 

Thus arranged, the activity of the Institution increased to such an extent that, within the year 1875, another instructor; Mr. G. Eitzman, was engaged. This gentleman, however, after serving some eighteen months, withdrew, and it 
devolved  again upon the remaining two instructors, Messrs. Speckhard and 
Uhlig, to divide the labor of the school-work. This continued until November 
20, 1879, when the Institution sustained a most severe loss in the sudden 
demise of its founder and faithful director, the Rev. G. Speckhard. The 
assistant instructor, H. Uhlig, who had been specially prepared for the arduousduties of deaf-mute training, was then appointed to succeed the deceased as 
director, which position he has held ever since. Messrs. L. Zeile and H. Witte 
were then called in as assistant instructors, and in place of Mrs. Speckhard, 
who, with her deceased husband, had supervised the domestic arrangements of theInstitution, Mr. and Mrs. F. Vogt were installed as Institution father and 
mother — manager and matron. At the same time, they assumed charge of the 
farm connected with the Institution, heretofore conducted by farm hands. 
Instructor Witte, however, left the Institution in the year 1883, and Mr. L. 
Krause took his place, which he continues to hold at the present time. In the 
year 1885 Mr.Zeile retired and Mr. J. G. Etter succeeded him as instructor, 
but also withdrew in 1892. Meanwhile Mr. and Mrs. Vogt also left, and Mr. and Mrs. J. Ketel were chosen as manager and matron, which positions they now hold. 

The total number of pupils since the foundation of the Institution amounts to 183, distributed as follows : 

Boys. Girls. Total. 

1880 20 18 38 

1881 24 20 44 

1882 24 16 40 

1883. 28 16 44 

1884 20 20 40 

1885 28 13 41 

1886 26 9 35 

1887 26 11 37 

1888 22 16 38 

1889 21 26 47 

1890. . ■. 21 24 45 

1891 20 25 45 

1892 20 22 42 

1893 19 21 40  

Board, however, is only paid by parents able to do so ; others 
are exempt. The maximum amount charged for board is $10 
per month. This sum, however, is only paid by very few ; by 
far the greater number of those who pay do so according to 
their ability. 

The total valuation of the property of the Institution, real 
and personal, is estimated to be $25,000. 

In regard to the school proper, and more especially the work 
of instruction, as already stated, the oral method in the Ger- 
man language is taught and used. This German oral method 
of instruction is conducted strictly in the manner and accord- 
ing to the system which prevails in nearly all of the deaf-mute 
institutions of Germany, which is designated as the speech- 
method. 

The first thing done with a j)upil upon entry is to have him 
engage in breathing exercises ; that is to say, lung gymnastics 
are employed, with a view systematically to encourage the 
emission of single sounds, the teacher slowly emitting sounds 
in a clear and natural manner and encouraging the pupil to 
imitate them. As a rule, the beginning is made with the con- 
sonants h, b, d, etc. In cases, however, where the pupil, in 
repeating, inclines more readily to give vowel sounds, vowels 
themselves are at first substituted for consonants. After a few 
hours thus devoted to practice on single sounds, several of the 
easier sound combinations are secured and determined, and 
soon, with a view to impart greater interest and eagerness, sig- 
nificant sounds and word combinations present themselves, 
which are readily and eagerly comprehended by the youthful 
beginners in speech. As accessories in attaining this end, use 
is made of a collection of pictorial mural reading charts pre- 
pared and published by the director of the school at Frankf ort- 
on-the-Main, Mr. J. Vatter. In this way, utilizing these by 
story and otherwise, the first speech, lip-reading, and instruc- 
tion in writing is given. It follows, of course, that all which 
the pupil has thus correctly articulated is permanently secured 
to him by writing, as likewise that writing from the very first 
is steadily called into requisition and daily practiced. 

The acquisition and definite determination of all sounds in 
connection with and relation to significant words, with scholars 
of ordinary capacity, takes from six to eight months— longer, 
however, in the case of the more dull and intellectually feeble. 
By the time a pupil has thoroughly familiarized himself with 
the contents of the mural charts, he has also advanced suffi- 
ciently to be able to read printed matter, and, therefore, now 
receives his first reader, entitled " Object and Language In- 
struction." The pupil is here confronted with sentences, and 
henceforth is taught to read by sentences, and so to speak and 
think. In addition to this reader, in which grammar receives 
systematic consideration, forms of speech in sentences, such as 
the responses to queries like " where," " whereof," " where- 
unto," "why," "wherefore," etc., are specially practised, as 
also are all manner of substitute forms of speech, the language 
of personal intercourse, and of whatever transpires in the daily 
routine of life. Furthermore, a special course of object les- 
sons is introduced about this time, as, in fact, during the entire 
course of instruction, by observations in natura, models, and 
pictures. At this time also, after the requisite preliminary ex- 
ercises in numbers have been had, the study of arithmetic is 
commenced, first with numbers ranging from 1 to 10, then 1 
to 20, and later 1 to 100. 

It requires from two to three years for the material con- 
tained in the first reader to be thoroughly mastered. "When 
this is done, the pupil receives his second reader, in which not 
only grammar is introduced in its more extended form, but 
the contents generally pay due attention to descriptive and 
narrative forms of speech. The special exercises in the forms 
of speech already referred to are continued, as also are all 
those involving the more difficult vocal and consonant combi- 
nations, for the latter of which J. Vatter has issued special 
language charts as a basis. At this stage of the pupil's prog- 
ress, and even earlier at times, biblical history is introduced, 
and somewhat later religious instruction is given. This is at 
first of the simplest kind, and then gradually augmented. 
Geography, more especially that of the United States, is also 
taught, as well as the more important features of natural and 
political history. Practice in arithmetic now embraces the 
four ground rules, with numbers in words and figures, and in 
some cases includes simple work in fractions. On the part of 
the pupils, brief compositions and other work which involves 
writing, such as keeijing a diary, letters, etc., are exacted, in 
which to some extent they have already had some practice. 
Likewise drawing and ornamental penmanship have meanwhile 
been added to the curriculum, together with the study of the 
English language. The latter, however, is confined to writing, 
as the repeated efforts made have shown us that it is too much 
and too difficult for deaf children to learn simultaneously 
equally well, orally, two different languages during a period 
of only six years' attendance at school, which frequently, 
alas ! ignorant parents even abbreviate. 

It is true one of the languages suffers to the extent of only 
being learned in its written form, whereas the other, the orally 
acquired language, also suffers somewhat. We must, how- 
ever, accommodate ourselves to circumstances and do the best 
we can, and not what one might prefer to do on his own ac- 
count. 

This applies equally to the matter of taking children into 
school to be instructed under the same roof regardless of their 
mental capacity, whether gifted or of feeble intellect. Owing 
to the fact already stated, that our Institution was primarily 
founded in order that all the deaf belonging to the Lutheran 
Church might be made acquainted with the Lutheran faith to 
the extent that they might, in later years, of their own per- 
sonal volition, become members of their mother church, it is 
requisite that the German oral language shall at all times take 
precedence in our speech intercourse, so that by means of the 
same our scholars may finally, on leaving school, be enabled 
to be confirmed in the said faith. Therefore, in addition to 
other essentials, it becomes incumbent upon us that at all 
events during the second half of the entire school term special 
attention be given to the matter of religious instruction. 

In addition to the mental labor which the pupils are called 
upon to do in the school proper, they are also taught to do suit- 
able work out of school-hours. The girls are employed in the 
kitchen, in the dining-room, in the laundry, in the sewing- 
room, at repairing, etc., while the boys are put to work in the 
yards, in the gardens, and upon the fields, prepare wood, and 
perform such other duties upon the premises as are helpful 
and to which they may be assigned. 
The study and school hours daily comprise five and a half 
hours, and the annual school term extends from September 
1st to July 15th. In addition to the summer vacation, there 
are holidays of eight days each at Christmas and Easter. 

The age of admission for pupils varies from eight to fifteen 
years ; applicants exceeding that age are only taken exception- 
ally. 

The library of the Institution contains some four hundred 
volumes and pamphlets, together with a collection of pictures, 
charts, and other appliances of service in object-lessons. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri and other 
States exercises general supervision over the Institution, 
whereas the immediate control devolves upon a board of 
managers, the members whereof are residents of Detroit, 
Michigan, consisting at present of the following-named gentle- 
men : 


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